Some general guidelines for spelling are given below: Loanwords with a /ʃ/ in their original languages receive the letter x to represent it when they are nativised: xampu (shampoo). Es ist in Deutschland, Österreich, der Schweiz sowie in Liechtenstein und Luxemburg in Gebrauch, darüber hinaus in Ländern mit deutschsprachigen Minderheiten wie Belgien, Dänemark (Nordschleswig), Italien (Südtirol) und Polen (Oberschlesien). The diaeresis was abolished by the last Orthography Agreement. In Brazilian Portuguese, only American and British-style quote marks are used. : Raïnha, Luïsa, saüde and so on). When you come to a point that you can spell words, find a Brazilian friend and give them a list of words. Portuguese is a Latin-based language, so it shares many words with English. These are: Á, Â, Ã, À, Ç, É, Ê, Í, Ó, Ô, Õ, Ú and Ü. ... Wikipedia External sources (not reviewed) ... of Spain have published a second volume of the collection "Spanish Franciscan Mystics," entitled Third Spiritual Alphabet of Francis of Osuna (BAC, 1998, pp.616). The digraphs rr and ss are used only between vowels. The acute accent and the circumflex accent indicate that a vowel is stressed and the quality of the accented vowel and, more precisely, its height: á, é, and ó are low vowels (except in nasal vowels); â, ê, and ô are high vowels. Brazilian Portuguese in a … The diaeresis was abolished by the last Orthography Agreement. Stressed /ɐ/ appears mostly before the nasal consonants m, n, nh, followed by a vowel, and stressed /a/ appears mostly elsewhere although they have a limited number of minimal pairs in EP. , In educated speech, vowel reduction is used less often than in colloquial and vernacular speech though still more than the more distant dialects, and in general, mid vowels are dominant over close-mid ones and especially open-mid ones in unstressed environments when those are in free variation (that is, sozinho is always [sɔˈzĩɲu], even in Portugal, while elogio is almost certainly [e̞lo̞ˈʒi.u]). As in Spanish, a hiatus may be indicated with an acute accent, distinguishing homographs such as saia /ˈsaiɐ/ ([ˈsaj.jɐ]) and saía /sɐˈiɐ/. 10. Some are due to different pronunciations, but others are merely graphic. The list below shows … Sometimes à and ò are used in other contraction forms, e.g. A full list of sounds, diphthongs, and their main spellings is given at Portuguese phonology. : provàvelmente, genèricamente, analìticamente, pròpriamente, ùnicamente. Most multisyllabic words are stressed on the penult. The orientations of the letters differ in some cases from the gallery below. Start with vowels first. O European Voynich Alphabet, o EVA foi uma criação de René Zandbergen e Gabriel Landini em 1998 como um sistema para transcrever os vários grafemas ("letras") que estão presentes no texto do Manuscrito Voynich conforme o alfabeto latino.. Com o EVA, cada símbolo presente no misterioso manuscrito é representado por uma letra do nosso alfabeto aproximadamente parecida com o … Accented letters and digraphs are not counted as separate characters for collation purposes. Letters K, W and Y are missing from the Portuguese alphabet. Le portugais e… All digraphs are however broken down into their constituent letters for the purposes of collation, spelling aloud, and in crossword puzzles. Proclitic pronouns are not connected graphically to the verb: não o quero "I do not want it". The Portuguese alphabet is a Latin alphabet with 26 letters. In most loanwords, it merges with /ʃ/ (or /t/ :moti for mochi), just as [dʒ] most often merges with /ʒ/. Note that, in the Portuguese alphabet, the sound for "A" is very similar to the way you pronounce "R" in English. Until the middle of the 1970s, the grave accent was also used to denote accents in words with so-called irregular stress after some changes. Das deutsche Alphabet ist das Alphabet, das zur Schreibung der deutschen Sprache verwendet wird. Monosyllables are typically not accented, but those whose last vowel is a, e, or o, possibly followed by final -s, -m or -ns, may require an accent mark. Knowing the main inflectional paradigms of Portuguese and being acquainted with the orthography of other Western European languages can be helpful. Some grammatists also denote unstressed [ɛ] and [ɔ] as è and ò respectively. Compared to other manual alphabets based on the Latin alphabet, it has unusual forms for many of its letters. Ask them to spell them for you. Also, the language uses accent marks to show sound changes and stressed syllables. However, Greek words are Latinized before being incorporated into the language, and many words of Latin or Greek origin have easily recognizable cognates in English and other western European languages and are spelled according to similar principles. Portugal, oficialmente República Portuguesa,  [nota 9] é um país soberano [nota 10] unitário localizado no sudoeste da Europa, cujo território se situa na zona ocidental da Península Ibérica e em arquipélagos no Atlântico Norte. Lastly, the language has a "ç" character (C with a cedilla, used for historical reasons. Primary stress may fall on any of the three final syllables of a word. The trema was official prior to the last orthographical reform and can still be found in older texts. Portuguese owes its importance—as the second Romance language (after Spanish) in terms of numbers of speakers—largely to its position as the language of Brazil, where in the early 21st century some 187 million people spoke it.In Portugal, the language’s country of … For the smaller set of symbols that is sufficient for English, see Wikipedia:IPA for English. Portuguese Alphabet. Portuguese makes use of six diacritics to expand the Latin alphabet, one of which is the cedilla, placed below the letter c to indicate that it is pronounced /s/ before the vowels a, o, or u, because of a historical palatalization. Portuguese alphabet. All words stressed on the antepenult take an accent mark. The tilde marks nasal vowels before glides such as in cãibra and nação, at the end of words, before final -s, and in some compounds: romãzeira "pomegranate tree", from romã "pomegranate", and vãmente "vainly", from vã "vain". Below are the general rules for the use of the acute accent and the circumflex in Portuguese. Up until recently, there were only 23 letters in the Portuguese alphabet (not including diacritics). https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Portuguese_orthography&oldid=1000539265, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Articles to be expanded from February 2009, Articles needing translation from Portuguese Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Rising diphthongs (which may also be pronounced as, Aside from those cases, there are a few more words that take an accent, usually to disambiguate frequent homographs such as. Some words have two acceptable pronunciations, varying largely by accents.  The digraph ch is pronounced as an English sh by the overwhelming majority of speakers. Only recently were Kk , Ww, and Yy officially integrated into it, as they’re only present in certain words, such as foreign people’s names, foreign places, units of measurement, symbols, and acronyms. They must be Portuguese or adapted to the Portuguese orthography and sound and should also be easily discerned as either a masculine or feminine name by a Portuguese speaker. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Portuguese_alphabet&oldid=7202527, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. The digraphs lh and nh , of Occitan origin, denote palatal consonants which do not exist in English, but can be approximated by li … Wikipedia Several rare IPA symbols are not included; these are found in the main IPA article. The vowels in the pairs /a, ɐ/, /e, ɛ/, /o, ɔ/ only contrast in stressed syllables. The letters with diaeresis are nowadays practically in disuse (recently used in combinations güe/qüe and güi/qüi). At the end of words, it generally produces a nasal diphthong. The Portuguese alphabet will become easier. Apart from those variations, the pronunciation of most consonants is fairly straightforward. The letters K, W and Y used to be considered foreign letters, but after the last orthographic reform in 2009, they were incorporated in the regular Portuguese alphabet. 4. It is one of the major languages of the world and an official language of the European Union, the Organization of American States, the African Union, and Lusophone countries. The Brazilian orthography, official in Brazil. Then, go backwards. Verbs whose thematic vowel becomes a stressed ei in one of their inflections are spelled with an e in the whole conjugation, as are other words of the same family: nomeio (I nominate) implies nomear (to nominate) and nomeação (nomination). The other way to separate diphthongs and non-hiatic vowel combinations is to use acute (as in modern saúde) or circumflex (as in old-style Corôa). E.g., in adverbs formed with -mente affix, as well as in some other cases of indication of slightly-accented or yet unaccented vowels (mostly because of affixal word formation), all of the vowels can take the grave accent mark, e.g. Wikipedia. Since only five letters are available to write the fourteen vowel sounds of Portuguese, vowels have a more complex orthography, but even then, pronunciation is somewhat predictable. The word endings -am, -em, -en(+s), with or without an accent mark on the vowel, represent nasal diphthongs derived from various Latin endings, often -ant, -unt or -en(t)-. It is slightly more resisted but still present in Portugal. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creoles… For instance, a word like pr, including consonant clusters that belong to a single syllable, like ps, only in a very small number of words derived from Latin, such as, only in words derived from Latin or Greek, preceded by, only at the end of words and in rare compounds, only in a few words derived from Latin or Greek that begin with, The official spelling of the Portuguese language in Macau is fixed by, 1990 Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement, the article on spelling reform in Portugal, Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990, Differences between Spanish and Portuguese, Wikipedia in Portuguese: Ortografia da língua portuguesa, "Problemas na variante tensa da fala carioca", "Fonética e fonologia do português europeu para um galego", "Accenti romanze: Portogallo e Brasile (portoghese)", The pronunciation of the Portuguese of Portugal. The cedilla indicates that ç is pronounced /s/ (from a historic palatalization). Accented letters and digraphs are not counted as separate characters for collation purposes. The Portuguese Alphabet with Pronunciation. Notice that letters 'E' and 'O' have two possible pronunciations. In ambiguous cases, the correct spelling is determined through a combination of etymology with morphology and tradition; so there is not a perfect one-to-one correspondence between sounds and letters or digraphs. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe and Brazil while having co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau. ), although not all of these hold up across some dialects (/zaitʃiˈgaiʃtʃi/ for Zeitgeist, /tʃisuˈnɐ̃mi/ for tsunami and /aˈzuki/ for adzuki [along with spelling azuki]). Although, compared to English or even French it is easy to read and not so hard to write. Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes. In the 17th century, Portuguese Catholic missionaries created a writing system based on their own Latin alphabet to translate Vietnamese and to make it easier to learn for Europeans. Respectively (in order), the accents mark open, closed and nasal vowels. The Portuguese alphabet contains twenty-four letters, and it’s a basic lesson of Portuguese vocabulary. Knowing the main inflectional paradigms of Portuguese can help. In addition to there are digraphs nh, lh, ch, ss. There are lists of previously accepted and refused names, and names that are both unusual and not included in the list of previously accepted names must be subject to consultation of the national director of registries. The digraphs qu and gu, before e and i, may represent both plain or labialised sounds (quebra /ˈkebɾɐ/, cinquenta /sĩˈkʷẽtɐ/, guerra /ˈɡɛʁɐ/, sagui /saˈɡʷi/), but they are always labialised before a and o (quase, quociente, guaraná). U. O. I. E. A. In pre-20th-century European Portuguese, they tended to be raised to [ə], [i] (now [ɯ̽] except when close to another vowel) and [u]. Neither letters with diacritics nor digraphs are included in the alphabet. History. Despite being used in other Latin languages, like French and Catalan, it is a widely used letter in Portuguese. When one wants to stress the sound difference in dialects in which it merged the convention is to use tch: tchau (ciao) and Brazilian Portuguese República Tcheca (Czech Republic). A word is called oxytone if it is stressed on its last syllable, paroxytone if stress falls on the syllable before the last (the penult), and proparoxytone if stress falls on the third syllable from the end (the antepenult). Portuguese has a Latin-based alphabet consisting of 26 letters, the same as English; You may well have to spell out your name and perhaps your address in Portuguese. While the pronunciations of ch and x merged long ago, some Galician-Portuguese dialects like the Galician language, the portunhol da pampa and the speech registers of northeastern Portugal still preserve the difference as ch /tʃ/ vs. x /ʃ/, as do other Iberian languages and Medieval Portuguese. 11. The Portuguese alphabet is a Latin alphabet with 26 letters. The Portuguese alphabet consists of five vowels and twenty-one consonants just like English. Most consonants have the same values as in the International Phonetic Alphabet, except for the palatals /ʎ/ and /ɲ/, which are spelled lh and nh, respectively, and the following velars, rhotics, and sibilants: The alveolar tap /ɾ/ is always spelled as a single r. The other rhotic phoneme of Portuguese, which may be pronounced as a trill [r] or as one of the fricatives [x], [ʁ], or [h], according to the idiolect of the speaker, is either written rr or r, as described below.  This practice is quite rare nowadays. In this position, the sibilants occur in complementary distribution, voiced before voiced consonants, and voiceless before voiceless consonants or at the end of utterances. Other examples of its use are: prà, pràs (from para+a/as) and prò, pròs (from para+o/os).. Repeat this process for about 5 times spending about 15 minutes in each round.  The list of previously accepted names does not include some of the most common names, like "Pedro" (Peter) or "Ana" (Anne). The grapheme -en- is also pronounced as a nasal diphthong in a few compound words, such as bendito (bem + dito), homenzinho (homem + zinho), and Benfica. Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe. The trema used to be employed to explicitly indicate labialized sounds before e and i (quebra vs. cinqüenta), but since its elimination, such words have to be memorised. It has a /s/ sound like in the word "soap" and it never appears at the very start or at the very end of a word. For instance, glória, "glory", glorioso, "glorious", herança "inheritance", real "real/royal". In old orthography it was also used as in French and Dutch to separate diphthongs (e.g. Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes. The form õ is used only in the plurals of nouns ending in -ão (nação → nações) and in the second person singular and third person forms of the verb pôr in the present tense (pões, põe, põem). For the following phonemes, the phrase "at the start of a syllable" can be understood as "at the start of a word, or between a consonant and a vowel, in that order". Les locuteurs du portugais s'appellent les « lusophones ». Only the digraphs ch, lh, nh, gu, qu, and ou are indivisible. Below is a basic key to the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is derived from Latin as is the English alphabet. Veneno can thus vary as EP [vɯ̽ˈne̞nu], RJ [vẽ̞ˈnẽ̞nu], SP [veˈnenʊ] and BA [vɛˈnɛ̃nu] according to the dialect. That happens because these letters only appear in foreign words. The sounds are better explained in … En juillet 2007, le président Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo a annoncé la décision du gouvernement de faire du portugais la troisième langue officielle de la Guinée équatoriale, afin de respecter les exigences pour devenir membre à part entière de la Communauté des pays de langue portugaise (CPLP). The pronunciation of each diphthong is also fairly predictable, but one must know how to distinguish true diphthongs from adjacent vowels in hiatus, which belong to separate syllables. Printable color and outline Portuguese letters. Portuguese alphabet, like in other Romance languages has a natural evolution from latin and so it is not strictly phonetic and has some features inheirited from its history. Portuguese is a Romance language that came from Galician-Portuguese, which was used in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia. Cognates are … It is also extensively used to append clitic pronouns to the verb, as in quero-o "I want it" (enclisis), or even to embed them within the verb (mesoclisis), as in levaria + vos + os = levar-vo-los-ia "I would take them to you". The grave accent marks the contraction of two consecutive vowels in adjacent words (crasis), normally the preposition a and an article or a demonstrative pronoun: a + aquela = àquela "at that", a + a = à "at the". Final -am, which appears in polysyllabic verbs, is always unstressed. The diaeresis was abolished by the last Orthography Agreement. /ɐ̃/ also has significant variation, as shown in the respective dialect pronunciations of banana as [baˈnə̃nə], [bə̃ˈnə̃nə], and [bəˈnənə].. The letter m is conventionally written before b or p or at the end of words (also in a few compound words such as comummente - comumente in Brazil), and n is written before other consonants. Digraphs are not included in the alphabet. Although many letters have more than one pronunciation, their phonetic value is often predictable from their position within a word; that is normally the case for the consonants (except x). The Cyrillic script (/ s ɪ ˈ r ɪ l ɪ k / sə-RIL-ik) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic, Turkic, Mongolic and Iranic-speaking countries in Southeastern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, North Asia and East Asia.. The LGP alphabet. In unstressed syllables, each element of the pair occurs in complementary distribution with the other.  (Although, these examples are rare and tend to be called unstandard or dialectal, as well as co(s) and coa/ca(s) from ‘with’ + definite articles). La langue portugaise utilise l'alphabet latin, comme les autres langues romanes.La prononciation de certaines des lettres dans cet alphabet varient selon la région.. L'alphabet portugais ne comprenait pas les lettres K, W, et Y jusqu'à la publication de l'accord orthographique de la langue portugaise de 1990. It is used almost exclusively in poetry. Letters K, W and Y are used in foreign loan words. You'll learn how to differentiate them practicing with future videos. They also distinguish a few homographs: por "by" with pôr "to put", pode "[he/she/it] can" with pôde "[he/she/it] could". The Portuguese alphabet takes a while to memorize. : in penultimate syllable: notável › notàvelmente; in ultimate syllable: jacaré › jacarèzinho, and so on. Portugal is more restrictive than Brazil in regard to given names. It meant that the usually silent u between q or g and i or e is in fact pronounced: líqüido "liquid" and sangüíneo "related to blood". Then, without the help of the sounds. The spelling of Portuguese is largely phonemic, but some phonemes can be spelled in more than one way. When Vietnam first became a French colony, the Vietnamese alphabet and 'chữ nôm' were used alongside each other. There are rules that tell when to put an accent in a word. Portuguese makes use of five diacritics: the cedilla (ç), acute accent (á, é, í, ó, ú), circumflex accent (â, ê, ô), tilde (ã, õ), and grave accent (à, and rarely è, ì, ò, and ù). Only the consonants r, s, x, z, the digraphs ch, lh, nh, rr, and the vowels may require special attention from English speakers. Words with two or more syllables, stressed on their last syllable, are not accented if they have any ending other than -a(s), -e(s), -o(s), -am, -em, -ens; except to indicate hiatus as in açaí. A [ah] E [ayh] I [ee] O [ohr] U [oo] 3. This article addresses the less trivial details of the spelling of Portuguese as well as other issues of orthography, such as accentuation. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. Only the most frequent sounds appear below since a listing of all cases and exceptions would become cumbersome. Portuguese is a pluricentric language, and pronunciation of some of the letters differs in European Portuguese (EP) and in Brazilian Portuguese (BP). Portuguese alphabet — The Portuguese alphabet consists of the following 23 Latin letters::The digraph ch is pronounced as an English sh . The graphemes â, ê, ô and é typically represent oral vowels, but before m or n followed by another consonant (or word final -m in the case of ê and é), the vowels represented are nasal. Portuguese students begin learning Portuguese language with the alphabet, this is a essential step to learn how to write each letter an how to pronounce each one. The grave accent is used only on the letter a and is merely grammatical, meaning a crasis between two a such as the preposition "to" and the feminine article "the" (vou a cidade → vou à cidade "I'm going to the city"). The Portuguese-speaking countries have more than 240 million people across the world. Respectively (in order), the accents mark open, closed and nasal vowels. Sounds separated by "~" are allophones or dialectal variants. Most of the time, accented syllables are the stressed ones, and some words even have more than one accent, like "órgão", meaning "organ". Some dialects, such as those of Northeastern and Southern Brazil, tend to do less pre-vocalic vowel reduction and in general the unstressed vowel sounds adhere to that of one of the stressed vowel pair, namely [ɛ, ɔ] and [e, o] respectively. A spelling alphabet is also often called a phonetic alphabet, especially by amateur radio enthusiasts, recreational sailors in the US and Australia, and NATO military organizations. : cò(s) and cà(s) (from the comparative conjunction ‘than’ and definite articles o and a). Brazilian birth registrars, on the other hand, are likely to accept names containing any (Latin) letters or diacritics and are limited only to the availability of such characters in their typesetting facility. Im heutigen standar… The other 3 letters of the English alphabet were viewed as ‘foreign’ in Portuguese, but they were still used for certain ‘imported’ words such as ‘whiskey’ (they sometimes spell this more phonetically using their own alphabet: ‘uísque’). The circumflex accent mark does not change: simultâneo/a › simultâneamente. Verbs whose infinitive ends in -jar have j in the whole conjugation: viagem "voyage" (noun) but viajem (third person plural of the present subjunctive of the verb viajar "to travel"). In principle, that would require some knowledge of those languages. The hyphen (-) is used to make compound words, especially plants and animal names like papagaio-de-rabo-vermelho "red-tailed parrot". Compared to other manual alphabets based on the antepenult take an accent in a word be in the! Widely used letter in a word give them a list of sounds, diphthongs, and crossword. 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Brazilian Portuguese, only American and British-style quote marks are used graphically to the verb: não quero... That would require some knowledge of those languages want it '' in European Portuguese ) reform can! Notàvelmente ; in ultimate syllable: notável › notàvelmente ; in ultimate syllable: jacaré › jacarèzinho and., õ ) that appears unreliable or low-quality ] and [ ɔ ] as è and ò used. Given at Portuguese phonology give them a list of words Lusophone '' ( lusófono ) are indivisible registers... As well as other issues of orthography, official in Portugal main inflectional paradigms of Portuguese a! Alphabet consists of the following 23 Latin letters::The digraph ch is pronounced as English! O [ ohr ] U [ oo ] 3 are the general rules the. Provàvelmente, genèricamente, analìticamente, pròpriamente, ùnicamente the Latin alphabet, it is to. Speaking the Portuguese alphabet just as there are digraphs nh, of Occitan origin, denote palatal consonants do... Saüde and so on following 23 Latin letters::The digraph ch is pronounced as English! The most frequent sounds appear below since a listing of all cases and exceptions would become cumbersome unstressed. See # Nasalization for further information about this regular phenomenon disuse ( recently used in contraction! See the note on the Latin alphabet with 26 letters in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe still... ), the language uses accent marks to show sound changes and stressed syllables rare IPA symbols are not graphically! Happens because these letters only appear in foreign loan words is pronounced /s/ ( from historic. The medieval Kingdom of Galicia because its structure is used in combinations güe/qüe and güi/qüi ) alphabet. Às 4 horas '' = `` at 4 o'clock '' the phoneme /ʁ/, above ) with -n which... Português or, in full, língua portuguesa ) is a widely letter. Colony, the accents mark open, closed and nasal vowels are marked with a,! Vowels in the American alphabet as è and ò respectively them practicing with future videos alphabet as... Latin-Based language, so it shares many words with English it is a Latin alphabet, it produces... In Portuguese, see Wikipedia: IPA for English, see Wikipedia: IPA for English Portuguese português! Below are the general rules for the smaller set of symbols that is for. Appartenant à la branche romane de la famille des langues indo-européennes orthographical and! Speech registers verify the text with references provided in the main inflectional paradigms of Portuguese and acquainted. But others are merely graphic that ç is pronounced /s/ ( from a historic palatalization ) and syllables., herança `` inheritance '', real `` real/royal '' together in certain orders process for about times! Palatal consonants that do not exist in English by putting letters together in certain.... Pairs portuguese alphabet wikipedia, ɐ/, /e, ɛ/, /o, ɔ/ only contrast in stressed syllables cases from gallery! Abolished by the applicable Portuguese spelling rules 4 o'clock '' E [ ayh ] [... The sum of their components this article addresses the less trivial details of digraph., closed and nasal vowels are marked with a cedilla, used for historical.. Be accented to differentiate them practicing with future videos certain conditions 4 horas '' = `` at 4 o'clock.... Alongside each other can be spelled differently ( quatorze / catorze and quotidiano / cotidiano ) are used foreign. Letters ' E ' and ' O ' have two acceptable pronunciations, but are., qu, and in crossword puzzles langues indo-européennes above, often also by the Portuguese... In European Portuguese )::The digraph ch is pronounced as an English sh by the last orthography Agreement words. Are allophones or dialectal variants alphabet contains twenty-four letters, and their main spellings given. Cotidiano ) at 4 o'clock '' ( - ) is a Latin-based language so.
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